THE UNITED KINGDOM
Part I: SAMUEL THE LAST JUDGE AND SAUL THE FIRST KING
Biblical Period 6
Lesson # 15
You knew the day would come when Your people Israel would prefer the rule of a king, like the other nations, instead of following the council of Your judges and prophets. Man has brought such misdirection and misery upon himself when he has cared more about his place in the world than his place in his relationship with You. It is a sad admission'but we seem to make the same mistakes over and over again because the world is no judge of righteousness and the world cannot satisfy our need for You. As we study Israel's move from a theocracy to a monarchy impart Your wisdom to us Lord and help us in our daily lives to discern what is pleasing to You and to disregard what is pleasing to the world. We pray in the name of God the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. Amen.
having reached the country given by Yahweh your God and having taken possession
of it and, while living there, you think, 'I should like to appoint a king to
rule me--like all the surrounding nations, ' the king whom you appoint to rule
you must be chosen by Yahweh your god; the appointment of a king must be made
from your own brothers; on no account must you appoint as king some foreigner
who is not a brother of yours."
that Yahweh had said, Samuel then repeated to the people who were asking him
for a king. He said, 'This is what the
king who is to reign over you will do.
He will take your sons and direct them to his chariotry and cavalry, and
they will run in front of his chariot.
He will use them as leaders of a thousand and leaders of fifty; he will
make them plough his fields and gather in his harvest and make his weapons of war
and the gear for his chariots. He will
take your daughters as perfumers, cooks and bakers. He will take the best of your fields, your
vineyards and your olive groves and give them to his officials. He will tithe your crops and vineyards to
provide for his courtiers and his officials.
He will take the best of your servants, men and women, of your oxen and
your donkeys, and make them work for him.
He will tithe your flocks, and you yourselves will become his
slaves. When that day comes, you will
cry aloud because of the king you have chosen for yourselves, but on that day
Yahweh will not hear you.' "
1 Samuel 8:10-18
The Readings for Period #6: The United Kingdom:
|Israel asks Yahweh for a King||1 Samuel 8:1-22|
|Samuel Anoints Saul King over Israel||1 Samuel 9:1-10:27|
|Saul looses God's favor||1 Samuel 15:1-23|
|Samuel Anoints David King||1 Samuel 16:1-23|
|David's Military Success||1Samuel 17:1 – 18:30|
Seeks David's Death/
David's Life as an Outlaw
1 Samuel 19:1-12;
|Saul Murders the Priests of Yahweh||1 Samuel 22:11-23|
|David Becomes King of Israel||2 Samuel 1:1-5:25|
|God's Covenant with David||2 Samuel 7:1-29|
|Solomon is Anointed King||1 Kings 1:28-2:12|
|Solomon Builds God's Temple||1 Kings 5:1 – 8:66|
|The Downfall of Solomon||1 Kings 11:1-43|
Please read 1 Samuel 8:1-22: Israel asks Yahweh for a King
The prophet Samuel, a man from the tribe of Ephraim who was consecrated from the womb as God's holy prophet/judge, ruled Israel in the name of Yahweh. He called the people to repentance and to recommit themselves in faithfulness to God and the Covenant: "Samuel spoke to the whole House of Israel:
'If you are returning to Yahweh with all your heart, banish the foreign gods and Astartes which you now have, and set your heart on Yahweh and serve him alone; and he will deliver you from the power of the Philistines.'" 1 Samuel 7:3-4
Samuel sent the Israelites into battles against the Philistines as Yahweh directed him and each year he visited the sites of Bethel, Gilgal and Mizpah to hear the petitions of the people and to dispense justice in the name of God. Samuel served Yahweh in absolute faithfulness all of his life but when he was old Samuel appointed his sons to aid him in administering justice.
Question: Did Samuel's sons also
render faithful service to the people and to God? See 1 Samuel 8:3.
Answer: No, they were dishonorable men who accepted bribes and gave biased verdicts.
Question: Dissatisfied with the
leadership of Samuel's sons what formal request did the elders of Israel make to
Samuel and what argument did they use to support their case? See 8:4-5.
Answer: They asked for a king to rule over them. The people made the argument that all the nations around them had kings.
This is not the first time the people proposed changing the form of government from a pure theocracy [rule by God] to a hereditary monarchy.
Question: Had Yahweh foreseen these
Answer: Yes, God is all seeing and all knowing. In Deuteronomy 17:14-20 Yahweh set the "Laws of the King" which limited a monarchy and prohibited certain excesses.
Question: What limitations were to be
placed on a monarchy?
Samuel is distressed and before he answers the elders he seeks God's counsel.
Question: What does God tell him?
Answer: Yahweh reassures Samuel that he has not failed. The rejection is not so much a rejection of his rule as a judge as it is a rejection of Yahweh's rule.
Question: If rule by a hereditary
monarchy is not Yahweh's desire why does God permit it? What implications can we see in petitions we
make to God?
Answer: If we stray from God's will and insist on doing what is wrong for us sometimes God will let us have our own way, using the resulting harm to bring us back into obedience to His will for our lives.
Question: What has Israel forgotten from that day when she came to
the holy mountain
of God when He called her
to be His possession'His holy nation?
Hint: see Exodus 19:5-8
Answer: The point that Israel has missed in the request to be "like other nations" is that Israel was never intended to "be like other nations." It is Israel's vocation to be a light and a guide to the other nations who do not "know" [not in a Covenant relationship with] Yahweh. By following the bad example of their neighbors and by rejecting her true king, Israel is rejection the vocation to which she was called at Sinai when Yahweh told the people: "..you out of all the peoples shall be my personal possession, for the whole world is mine. For me you shall be a kingdom of priests, a holy nation. " And to which they responded "Whatever Yahweh has said, we will do."
Question: Yahweh will grant the
people's petition to have a king but what warning does he command Samuel to
give them? See 1 Samuel 8:7-18.
Answer: That to support a king will be a burden to the people and they will give up their freedom as well as their children to the king:
SAMUEL'S WARNING AND FULFILLMENT OF THE WARNING
|WARNING||Scripture in 1 Samuel||FULFILLMENT|
|Young men drafted into the king's army||8:11, 12||Whenever Saul saw a mighty or brave man he took him into his service." Samuel 14:52|
|Young men to run in front of the king's chariots||8:11||Absalom provided himself with a chariot and horses and with fifty men to run ahead of him." 2 Samuel 15:1|
|Required labor for the King||8:12-17||Solomon assigned laborers to build the temple and his palace. 2 Chronicles 2:17, 18|
|Acquiring the best of your fields and vineyards||8:14||Jezebel stole Naboth's vineyard. 1 Kings 21:5-16|
|Using the people's property for his personal gain||8:14-16||Solomon gave away 20 cities to the King of Tyre. 1 Kings 9:10-15|
|A king will demand a tenth of your harvest and flocks||8:15, 17||Solomon and his son taxed the people heavily. 1 Kings 12:1-16|
Please read 1 Samuel 9:1-10:27: Samuel Anoints Saul as the King of Israel
Yahweh reveals to Samuel that He has chosen a young man named Saul to be king of Israel.
Question: Aside from being God's
choice what were Saul's qualifications for kingship?
Answer: He was the son of a man who is the head of a family that Saul characterized as "the least of all the families of the tribe of Benjamin" but Saul's father is also described in 9:2 as "a person of rank"; in other words not wealthy but from a good blood line. Saul was tall, head and shoulders above other Israelites, and he was handsome. Image was everything then too.
Saul is looking for missing donkeys and expects the prophet Samuel to reveal the location of the missing animals but Samuel reveals much more! It is interesting that Saul seems not to know of Samuel's ministry. Perhaps this is an indication of Saul's lack of interest in spiritual matters.
1 Samuel 9:12 mentions that Samuel is preparing to go up to the "high place". At this time in Israel the central sanctuary of Yahweh may not have been functioning. Shiloh, the site of the Tabernacle, had been destroyed and most of the priestly family of Eli the High Priest had been killed. Later in Israel's history worship at these high places, also a practice of the pagan peoples, provided a means for the introduction of pagan practices into Israel's liturgy and for this reason such sites were condemned [see Leviticus 26:30 and 1 Kings 3:2]. Samuel will go up to the "high place" to bless the sacrifice, to preside over the sacrificial meal [see 1:4; 2:13-16], and to offer the blessing of the food before the people ate the sacrifice. At this time there is no central location for establishing the Tabernacle.
Question: When Samuel reveals Saul's
royal destiny in verse 20 what is Saul's response? Why is the tribe of Benjamin the smallest
tribe? Hint: see Judges 19:21
Answer: Saul is astonished and reluctant to believe Samuel's prophecy concerning his destiny. Like Moses in his first encounter with the promise of greatness, Saul is fearful that he can fulfill the role to which he has been called. The tribe of Benjamin is the smallest because the tribe was nearly wiped out in a civil war with the other tribes during the time of the conquest.
In 1 Samuel 10:1-8 Samuel anoints Saul as King of the 12 tribes of Israel. The Kings of Israel were always anointed by either by a priest or a prophet of Yahweh [see 1 Samuel 16:13; 1 Kings 1:39; 2 Kings 6:6; 11:12]. In this case Samuel fulfilled both roles; indeed, along with the great law giver Moses, Samuel is unique among the servants of Yahweh in that he served the Covenant people as priest, prophet and ruler/judge. All three offices of king, priest and prophet required an anointing ordination with holy oil.
Yahweh gave Moses the recipe for the holy anointing oil in Exodus 30 along with instructions on its limited use. Please read Exodus 30:22-33
Question: How was the use of the holy
Answer: It was to be used to anoint the sacred objects in the Tabernacle, and it was to be used to anoint those consecrated to Yahweh's service. Anyone who used the holy oil for other purposes, other than those commanded by Yahweh, was to be excommunicated from the people.
Question: The anointing of the objects
in the Tabernacle identified them as sacred to Yahweh. What was the purpose of anointing with holy
oil the men of the offices of prophet, priest and king by a "man of
Yahweh"? Why is it that a king wasn't
simply "crowed" king by a priest or prophet? What is the difference between crowning and an
Question: What is the meaning of the
Hebrew word masiah, which is
translated in English as "messiah"?
Answer: This word means "anointed" or "anointed one" and is used in the Old Testament as a designation of the king of Israel, of the high priest, and of God's prophet. But as Yahweh continued to give promises of a "future" leader in Genesis 3:15; Genesis 49:8-12; Deuteronomy 18: 15-19; 2 Samuel 7:5-16 (repeated in 1 Chronicles 17:4-14); and through multiple prophecies from the Age of the Prophets, the people began to understand that One Great Future Messiah would come to redeem the Covenant people from the curses of the Covenant they had brought on themselves through their apostasy. This promised Messiah, with a "capital M", would bring about a regeneration of the people resulting in a New Covenant to replace the Sinai Covenant [see Jeremiah 31:31-34].
Question: Are men still anointed today
to serve as Yahweh's vassals? Who is the
covenant mediator of the New Covenant?
Answer: In the Catholic Church deacons, priests, and bishops are anointed as Yahweh's vassals who serve as representatives to the people in "persona Christi" or in the "person of Christ"--standing before the Covenant people as Jesus Himself. As members of a royal priesthood, all those who are baptized into the New Covenant Church are also anointed with holy oil. Jesus Christ fulfills all 3 holy offices of Prophet, High Priest, and King, and He is our one Covenant mediator, but in His office as King He has appointed a Vicar, or Prime Minister to serve Him in His earthly Kingdom. His Vicar is the man who is anointed to sit on the "throne of St. Peter", the Pope, or Papa, of the New Covenant people.
In 1 Samuel 10:2 Samuel gives Saul a "sign" that Yahweh has indeed anointed him to be the ruler of the people.
Question: What is the "sign"
and why is it necessary for Saul to have such a sign? Hint: actually there are 3 signs! Notice the repetitions of 3s!
Answer: Saul would receive 3 signs:
The "sign" had a 3-fold purpose:
The news of this event would contribute to Saul's political election [to the office God had already conferred upon him] by the 12 tribes in 1 Samuel 10:17-24. Did you notice the repetitions of the 3's and the command by Samuel to wait 7 days? In the symbolism of numbers in Scripture 3 denotes importance and fullness and completion especially in fulfilling a divine plan, and 7 symbolizes perfection, and completion, especially spiritual perfection.
Saul was "chosen by lot" in 10:20. This was accomplished either by the 12 tribes voting democratically to elect Saul as some scholars have suggested or, more likely, by using the urim and thummim [see Exodus 28:30 and Numbers 27:12-21] the cultic objects used to determine the will of Yahweh. By having the high priest use the urim and thummim the Israelites were taking the decision out their own hands and leaving the decision in God's hands.
Question: When the 12 tribes assembled
to choose a king Saul already knew he had been selected by God to be the
king. Instead of coming forward and
proclaiming his willingness to accept this high office what did he do and why?
Answer: Instead of believing in God's providence he hid from Samuel and the people because he was consumed with his own feelings of inadequacy
Question: Was Saul accepted
unanimously by the people? See 10:27
Answer: No, some scorned Saul. Perhaps his unwillingness to come forward had already indicated to a few discerning people the likelihood of a future crisis in leadership, or they did not have faith in the selection process.
In 1 Samuel 10:25 Samuel explained the limits of the monarchy. He probably began by reciting Yahweh's instructions in 1 Samuel 8:18 and Deuteronomy 17:14-20 but Samuel also recorded what must have been a written constitution or contract governing relations between the king and the people. This document has apparently been lost to us; however most scholars are confident that it existed because there are other references to such a document in 2 Samuel 5:3; 1 Kings 12:1ff and 2 Kings 11:17-18.
The kings of Israel were not to be like the kings of the other nations. Pagan kings were considered to be semi-divine and ruled as the political and religious authority in the land. By contrast Israel's king had to answer to a higher authority--the One True God, and served the people as Yahweh's vassal with limited power over Yahweh's people. Unlike the kings of Israel's neighbor nations, Israel's king was not permitted to rule as a priest-king. The religious authority remained in the hands of Yahweh's High Priest. It is interesting that among the non-canonical books found among the Dead Sea Scrolls was a text which scholars have titled "The Temple Scroll". It was discovered by the Bedouin and sold to a Christian Arab antiques dealer in Bethlehem. It finally came in to the hands of the Israel General/Archaeologist Yagil Yadin in 1967. It was an almost intact 27-foot long leather scroll. A major portion of the Temple Scroll, nearly four columns, is devoted to what archeologists are calling "the Statutes of the King". It contains laws relating to the marriage of the king, rules for mobilization during war, and limits to the rights/powers of the king. The "Statutes of the King" in the Temple Scroll begins by quoting the verses from Deuteronomy 17 relating to the rule of a king, as well as recounting the two principle points in 1 Samuel 8:11-12 that the king "will appoint for himself commanders of thousands and commanders of fifties" and that the king is entitled to a "tenth of your grain and of your vineyards...of your flocks." It is also made clear in these statues that a king of Israel is only the political authority. He is not to usurp the religious role that belongs to Yahweh's priests! Together the priesthood and the monarchy will function as the people's religious and political representatives to Yahweh. Many Bible scholars believe this ancient document contains much of the missing constitution concerning the role of the kings of Israel.
Saul begins his reign as king on a positive note when God gives him victory over the Ammonites. The people now have confidence in his leadership and he is declared king at Gilgal, the site of Israel's first religious and political center in the Promised Land. This is Saul's the 3rd anointing/coronation.
Question: How do the people confirm
Saul's selection as king? What was the
3-part selection process from 10:1, to 10:20-21, to 11:15?
Answer: They sacrifice fellowship offerings to God as they made Saul their first king. Saul had been chosen as God's anointed at Rahah [10:1], then he was publicly chosen at Mizpah [17-27], and now his defeat of the Ammonites has confirmed his kingship in the eyes of the people. This is the political recognition of Saul as king apart from his selection as God's choice. The instructions for these offerings mentioned in 1 Samuel 11:15 are given in Leviticus chapter 3 and are an expression of gratitude and thanksgiving to God, symbolizing the peace that comes to those who know Him and who live in obedience to His commands. Even though God did not want Israel to have a human king, the people are demonstrating through their offerings that despite Saul's selection as king that God is still their true King. Unfortunately this attitude of obedience does not last, just as God had warned them in 1 Samuel 8:7-19.
Saul's most important role as king of Israel will be to defend Israel from her enemies. Saul achieves success so long as he is obedient to Yahweh:
KING SAUL'S MILITARY BATTLES
|Jabesh-gilead||Israel||Saul leads 3 companies of men in victory, delivering the people of Jabesh||1 Samuel 11:1-11|
|Aphek to Ebenezer||Philistia||The Ark of the Covenant was captured||1 Samuel 4:1-11|
|Mizpah||Israel||Ark returned; God confuses the Philistines who are routed by Israel||1 Samuel 7:7-14|
|Geba||Israel lead by Jonathan son of Saul||Jonathan defeats the Philistines with 3,000 men||1 Samuel 13:3-4|
|Gilga||Undecided||Israelite soldiers loose their nerve and flee the battle||1 Samuel 13:5-10|
|Gilboa||Philistia||Israel is defeated. Saul and his sons are killed||1 Samuel 31:1-13|
M. Hunt 2004
Question: What problems begin to
emerge that reflect on Saul's ability to lead the people? See 1 Samuel 14:1 & 17; 14:24; and 14:31.
Answer: Saul continues to make leadership errors: he fails to communicate with his very able son Jonathan [14:1, 17]; he makes a foolish curse [14:24] and ignores the well being of his army [14:31]. There is evidence that he is beginning the long downward spiral into mental illness.
Question: Were Saul's failures not his
fault but were they instead a result of a deteriorating mental condition?
Answer: It is more likely that Saul's poor leadership was not a result of his mental illness but was the result of a decaying spiritual condition which contributed to his mental illness.
Please read 1 Samuel 15:1-23: Saul looses God's favor
This passage recounts the events that resulted in Saul's rejection by Yahweh. Saul fails Yahweh as a king in 2 separate events recounted in 13:8-14 and 15:1-23.
Question: What was Saul's failure in
13:8-14? See 1Samuel 10:8
Answer: Samuel had instructed Saul to wait "You must wait 7 days for me to come to you and then I shall reveal what you are to do." Samuel had promised to make offerings himself before Israel went to battle [see 7:9]. Instead of waiting, after the 7 day period ended when Samuel had failed to come, Saul rashly made the sacrifice himself, acting as high priest. This was a violation of God's law in Deuteronomy 12:5-28; Leviticus 3:1-17; 4:5-7, 16, 25, 30; 5:6, 12-13; etc. as well as a violation of the specific instructions given by Samuel in 10:8. Note: the offerer brings the sacrifice and takes the life of the animal at the sanctuary but it is the priest who must be present to apply the sacrifice, pouring out the blood and placing the body on Yahweh's altar. Saul took both the role of the offerer and the High Priest.
Question: What was Samuel's reaction
to Saul's actions?
Answer: He told Saul he had acted foolishly and that his kingdom would not endure. He also told him "Yahweh would have confirmed your sovereignty over Israel for ever. But now your sovereignty will not last. Yahweh has discovered a man after his own heart and has designated him as leader of his people..."[1 Samuel 13:14]. This is the first prophecy of the future anointing of David son of Jesse of Bethlehem as King of Israel.
Saul's foolish and sinful act was motivated by his fear he needed to make a national sacrifice to keep the army from deserting him and to strengthen Israel's chances against the Philistines. This is another example of a man deciding for himself was is good and what is not good. Saul was usurping God's sovereignty and authority as he disregarded the instructions and covenant obligations of Yahweh through his prophet Samuel and forgetting Samuel's earlier warning: "You have not obeyed the order which Yahweh your God gave you." [1 Samuel 13:13].
Question: How did Saul ultimately fail
in his duty to God? [see 1 Samuel 3:20;
15:1; and Exodus 20:18-19].
Answer: Saul's duty to Yahweh was to recognize the word of Samuel, the prophet of God, as the word of God Himself. In disobeying Samuel's command, and usurping the religious office of Yahweh's priest/prophet, Saul violated a fundamental requirement of his theocrataic office. His kingship was not to function independently of the Law of God and His prophets!
Question: Why do you think Yahweh
refuses to grant the role of Priest/King to the Kings of Israel? Who is it who would later fill the role as Israel's first
and only Priest/King?
Answer: Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Mary, the son of David, the Son of God.
Question: What is Saul's next failure? See 15:1-3 and 7-9; 15:10-11.
Answer: Yahweh had placed the Amalekites under the "curse of destruction". These people had been enemies of Israel since the Exodus from Egypt, but Saul spared the best of the sheep and cattle as well as the life of the king. The "curse of destruction" was placed on the Amalekites in order to prevent idolatry from taking hold in Israel. Idolatry among these people was an infectious disease and even their possessions were tainted [idols used in pagan ritual, for example]. To break this law of destruction was punishable by death [see Joshua chapter 7]. Saul showed both disrespect and disregard for Yahweh by directly violating His command.
Saul saw his conquest of the Amelekites as a victory but because of Saul's disobedience God saw it as a failure. As a result of Saul's failure Yahweh tells Samuel He "regrets" that He made Saul king over His people. When God told Samuel He had regretted making Saul king, God was not admitting that He had made a mistake. An omniscient God does not make mistakes. God's comment was instead an expression of sorrow [also see Genesis 6:5-7]; God did not change his mind. What did change; however, was that Saul's sin changed his relationship with God. Saul's heart no longer belonged to God but instead belonged to Saul's own selfish interests.
Question: Why did Samuel weep
"all night long"?
Answer: Samuel was a responsible covenant mediator and saw Saul's failure as his own failure just as he did in 1Samuel 8:7-8 when God reassured him that the people were not rejecting him but were instead rejecting God when they asked for a king.
Question: What is significant about Saul
raising a monument or stele in 1 Samuel 15:12?
Contrast Saul's action to Moses and Joshua.
Answer: Saul raised a monument to himself in contrast to Moses and Joshua who gave God the credit.
Question: When Samuel confronts Saul
in 15:15-21 what excuse does Saul make and what is Samuel's reply?
Answer: Saul's excuse is that he was going to offer what was spared as a sacrifice to Yahweh. It is the old, often repeated failure of men and women; it is the reinterpreting the commands of God to suit our selfish wants and needs. The result is the creation a god in our own image and likeness.
Question: Samuel's reply in verses
22-23 pinpoints the crux of Saul's problem by asking a question. What is the answer to Samuel's question: "Is Yahweh pleased by burnt offerings
and sacrifices or by obedience to Yahweh's voice? Also see Psalms 51:16;
Amos 5:21; Hosea 6:6; Psalms 51:16
Answer: "Truly, obedience is better than sacrifice, submissiveness than the fat of rams. Rebellion is a sin of sorcery, presumption a crime of idolatry!" These are very hard words. Rebellion and arrogance are serious sins. They involve far more than being independent and strong-willed. Scripture equates these sins with divination (witchcraft) and idolatry, sins worthy of death [see Exodus 22:18; Leviticus 20:6; Deuteronomy 13:12-15; 18:10; Micah 5:10-14]. As long as a person is in these sins they close the door to forgiveness and restoration with God.
Question: In 15:24-31 Saul confesses
his sin and asks for forgiveness. Why
does Samuel still insist that his kingdom will be taken from him and given to
another [verse 28]. What do you see in Saul's words of verses 22 and 31 that go
to the heart of Saul's problem?
Answer: In both verses Saul refers to God as Samuel's God ["your God"], not Saul's God. Saul is incapable of being obedient to a god he has not accepted as his own.
In withdrawing the kingship from Saul God was not rejecting him as a person. He could still seek forgiveness and restore his relationship with God but it was too late to get his kingdom back. This was a question of accountability for sin just as all of us must one day give an account for our actions [see Romans 14:12; 1 Corinthians 3:10-15; Revelations 22:12].
In 15:24-30 Saul pleads with Samuel to go with him to public liturgical worship ceremony.
Question: What is the reason for
Answer: Saul was more concerned about what others would think of him than he was about his relationship with God. He wants Samuel to go with him as a public demonstration that Samuel still supports him. Saul does not grasp the necessity of leading the people as a servant of Yahweh, just as he failed to grasp the importance of the political and religious unity of the nation.
It is significant that in this period for the first time the political center of Israel and the Tabernacle are separated. This separation is symbolic of growing alienation between the governmental authority and God. The political and religious center of the nation will not be reunited until David captures Jerusalem.
Questions for group discussion:
Please read Matthew 18:15-18. Also please read Catechism of the Catholic Church #s 1868; 2472; and 553 & 1444-5 [power to bind & loose].
Question: What obligations do Catholic government leaders have to upholding the tenets of their Catholic faith?
Question: When professing Catholic government representatives publicly express views and beliefs contrary to the teachings of the Church what action should Catholic bishops take if any?
Question: Are elected government representatives who are Christians answerable to an authority higher than their constituents?
Question: When the Magisterium pronounces the laws of the Church in regards to divorce, abortion, sexual purity before marriage, adhering to the holy days of obligation, obligatory attendance of the Mass on the Lord's Day, etc., and then when we decided for ourselves which covenant obligations to obey and which to ignore, like sampling from the offerings of a cafeteria-style religion, are we guilty of rebellion and presumption? Are we guilty of the same sins Samuel pronounced against Saul?
Resources and Recommended Reading:
Michal Hunt, Copyright © 2008 Agape Bible Study. Permissions All Rights Reserved.