Abape Bible Studies

THE DAVIDIC KINGS OF JUDAH 930 – 30AD to Eternity

One ruling family = the House of David.  First Davidic successor was Solomon, son of Bathsheba, c 970- 930BC.  With the revolt of the 10 Northern tribes, two kingdoms were formed: the Kingdom of Israel in the north and the Kingdom of Judah in the south.  The Northing Kingdom had 9 ruling dynasties while the Southern Kingdom was ruled only be the descendants of King David.

But Yahweh would not destroy the House of David, because of the covenant which he had made with David, promising to provide him and his sons with a lamp for ever.
2 Chronicles 21:7

Do you not know that Yahweh, God of Israel, has given eternal sovereignty of Israel to David and his sons by an inviolable covenant?
2 Chronicles 13:5

NAMES OF THE RULERS OF JUDAH
(all descendants of David with the exception of the illegitimate rule of # 7)
DATE OF REIGN GOOD OR BAD RULE YEARS OF REIGN
(according to modern counting)
RELATION TO PREDECESSOR & QUEEN MOTHER (Gebirah)* SCRIPTURAL  REFERENCE FOR DAVIDIC KINGS AND QUEEN MOTHERS
1.   King Rehoboam 930-913 BC Bad 17 son of Solomon;
mother = Naamah the Ammonite
1 Kings 11:42 – 14:31;
2 Chronicles 9:31-12:16
2.   King Abijam (Abijah) 913-911 BC Bad  3 son of Rehoboam; mother: Maacah (Micaiah), descendant of Absalom son of David 1 Kings 14:31 – 15:8;
2 Chronicles 13:1-23
3.   King Asa 911-870 BC Good 41 son of  Abijam; mother?, Gebirah = grandmother Maacah 1 Kings 15:8-24;
2 Chronicles 13:23-16:14
4.  King Jehoshaphat 870-848 BC Good 25 son of Asa; mother: Azubah 1 Kings 15:24; 22:41-51;
2 Chronicles 17:1-21:1
5.   King Jehoram 848-841 BC Bad  8 son of Jehoshaphat; mother: ? 2 Kings 8:16-24;
2 Chronicles 21:1-20
6. King Ahaziah 841- BC Bad 1 son of Jehoram; mother: Athaliah daughter of Jezebel and Ahab, King of Northern Kingdom of Israel 2 Kings 8:24-29; 9:14-26;
2 Chronicles 22:1-12
7. Queen Mother Athaliah
(descendant of the dynasty of Omni of Israel)
841-835 BC Bad 6  daughter of Jezebel and Ahab, King of Northern Kingdom of Israel 2 Kings 8:26; 11:1-20;
2 Chronicles 21:6; 22:2, 22:9-23:21
8.   Jehoash (Joash) 835-796 BC Good 40 grandson of Athaliah and son of Ahaziah; mother: Zibiah of Beersheba 2 Kings 11:1 – 12:21;
2 Chronicles 22:10-23; 24:27
9. Amaziah 796-781 BC Good 29 son of Jehoash; mother: Jehoaddan of Jerusalem 2 Kings 14:1-22;
2 Chronicles 24:27-25:28
10. Uzziah 781-740 BC Started good/later bad 52 son of Amaziah mother: Jecoliah of Jerusalem 2 Kings 15:1-7;
2 Chronicles 26:1-23
11.  Jotham (served as regent for several years until his father's death) 740-736 BC Good 16 son of Uzziah; mother: Jerushah daughter of Zadok 2 Kings 15:32-38;
2 Chronicles 26:21-23 (regent);
26:23-27:9 (king)
12.  Ahaz 736-716 BC Bad 16 son of Jotham; mother: ? 2 Kings 15:38 – 16:20;
2 Chronicles 27:9-28:27
13.  Hezekiah 716-687 BC Good 29 son of Ahaz; mother: Abijah daughter of Zechariah 2 Kings 16:20; 18:1- 20:21;
2 Chronicles 28:27-32:33
14.  Manasseh 697-642 BC Bad 55 son of Hezekiah; mother: Hephzibah 2 Kings 21:1-18;
2 Chronicles 32:33-33:20
15.  Amon 642-640 BC Bad 2 son of Manasseh; mother: Meshullemeth daughter of Haruz of Jotbah 2 Kings 21:18-26;
2 Chronicles 33:20-25  
16.  Josiah 640-609 BC Good 31 son of Amon; mother: Jedidiah daughter of Adaiah of Bozkath 2 Kings 21:26 – 23:30;
2 Chronicles 33:25-35:27
17.  Jehoahaz 609 BC Bad 3 months son of Josiah;
mother: Hamutal
daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah
2 Kings 23:30-34;
2 Chronicles 36:1-4
18.  Jehoiakim
(name changed from Eliakim to Jehoiakim by Necho, Pharoh of Egypt; probably reflects vassal status)
609-598 BC Bad 11 Son of Josiah;
brother of Eliakim/Jehoahaz;
mother: Zebidah daughter of Pedaiah of Rumah
2 Kings 23:34 – 24:6;
2 Chronicles 36:5-8
19.  Jehoiachin
(also known as Coniah; called Jechoniah in N.T.)
598-597 BC Bad 3 months son of Jehoiakim; mother: Nehusta daughter of Elnathan of Jerusalem 2 Kings 24:6-17
2 Chronicles 36:8-10
20.  Zedekiah (name changed to Zedekiah by King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon probably reflects vassal status) 597-586 BC Bad 11 son of Josiah;
paternal uncle of Jehoiachin; mother: Hamital daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah (also the mother of King Jehoahaz)
2 Kings 24:17 – 25:30
2 Chronicles 36:10-13;
Jeremiah 52:1-3; 37-39;
Ezekiel 17:13-16
21. Jesus of Nazareth, son of David, son of God 30AD- eternity Sinless Eternity Son of God, mother: Mary of Nazareth, descendant of King David: Queen (Gebirah) of the Heavenly Kingdom Matthew 1:1-17, 20; Luke 1:26-38; 2:5; 3:23-38; Revelation 12:1-17

All dates are approximate and may vary according to various scholars

*Note: The Gebirah, the Queen Mother of the Kingdom of Judah, was an official position held by the mother of the Davidic kings.  She was the most important and influential woman in the royal court and the king's chief counselor.  The Hebrew word, gebirah, is found fifteen times in the Old Testament and can be translated as "Queen Mother" or "Great Lady"  [Genesis 16:4, 8, 9; 1 Kings 11:19 (used for the Egyptian Queen Mother); 15:13; 2 Kings 5:3; 10:13; 2 Chronicles 15:16; Psalm 123:2; Proverbs 30:23; Isaiah 24:2; 47:5, 7; Jeremiah 13:18; 29:2 ].  The institution of the Gebirah was evidently not practiced in the 9 dynasties of the Northern Kingdom.

Additional information on the institution of the Davidic Gebirah may be found in these resources:

  1. Birth of the Messiah, Father Raymond Brown, New York: Doubleday, 1993.
  2. Ancient Israel, Father R. De Vaux, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1961.
  3. Queen Mother: A Biblical Theology of Mary's Queenship, Edward Sri, Steubenville, Ohio: Emmaus Road Publishing, 2005.

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